Black Confederates and White Southern Unionists

For all of the discussion concerning the presence or absence of African Americans in the armies of the Confederacy and the debate over whether they served as soldiers, most people understand that what is really at stake is a discussion over slavery and the Civil War.  The underlying assumption of many advocates of the Black Confederate Myth (BCM) is that if you can prove that some blacks fought for the Confederacy, then the war wasn’t about slavery at all; that southerners (regardless of race) were fighting for their homeland against an invading horde of Yankees who were determined to subjugate them; and that by joining the ranks of the Confederate army and “serving” the Confederacy, blacks were saying that they loved their fellow white southerners and saw slaveholders as largely kindly folk who cared for their entire family, slave and free, and that means that white Confederates (and southerners) really aren’t racist after all.

That’s what this debate is all about.  It’s all about decoupling the Confederacy from the defense of slavery, a theme that also motivates discussions about the personal interactions of Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant with slavery (if Grant once owned a slave, so the argument goes, then the war could not have been about slavery, a claim bolsters by fabricating evidence and continuing to cite long-discredited tales of what Grant supposedly said about slavery … something also done with Lee).  Even today we see some white southerners deplore the evils of slavery in the abstract, but seem intent on blaming anyone but slaveholders for being part of that evil, and sometimes the claim’s made that blacks were well-treated under slavery because their masters loved and respected them, and so enslaved blacks were happy and faithful (how this fits in with the Fugitive Slave Act and other matters seems to be overlooked, but then historical accuracy’s not the strong suit with this crowd).

In short, it’s about people living today who identify themselves as Confederates (as in “we lost”); it’s about what those people need to believe, and not about history at all.  It’s a fabricated heritage, not history.  It’s comfort heritage (maybe that’s why they call it “Southern Comfort”) embraced by Confederate Romantics.

Now, there are plenty of ways to counter these arguments and undermine the assumptions of the BCM crowd, many of which involve the actual analysis of evidence, a practice where many advocates of the BCM are sorely lacking.  One can ask, for example, whether more enslaved blacks served as soldiers in the armies of the United States between 1861 and 1865 as opposed to how many enslaved black Confederate soldiers there were; one can ask why someone as exalted as Robert E. Lee did not know that there were substantial numbers of black Confederate soldiers in his own army; and so on.  But there’s also a way to flip the logic of BCM advocates on its side in order to ask the same questions about the Confederacy and its relation to the South.

I present for your consideration the case of the white southern Unionist.

Unlike black Confederate soldiers, it’s easy to document the presence of white southern Unionists, including those who served in the military as soldiers fighting for the United States.  One such white southern Unionist was elected vice president in 1864.  Others died alongside their black comrades at Fort Pillow.  I think it’s safe to say that most people would recognize that there were far more white southern Unionists than black Confederate soldiers.  So what do white southern Unionists tell us about the Confederacy, the South, slavery, and the war?

Well, first, the presence of southern white Unionists tells us that the white South and the Confederacy are two separate and distinct things.  Not all white southerners, even in states that seceded, supported the Confederacy, and in various areas there was a rather active opposition to secession and the Confederate war effort.  Yet these people were just as southern as their Confederate counterparts.  People who claim that they are honoring southern heritage but deny the presence or importance of white southern Unionists or a divided white South are simply engaging in a massive coverup of historical truth.

Second, many white southern Unionists still favored the protection of slavery and shared in the racial prejudices of the time (for the latter, see the case of Andrew Johnson).  Indeed, it was the failure of white southern Unionists to take steps to reestablish loyal governments in areas occupied by US military forces in 1861 and 1862, in good part because of their concern about the fate of slavery, that moved Lincoln along the path to emancipation.  Even in states that did not join the Confederacy this was a struggle: while Missouri and Maryland ended slavery during the war, Kentucky and Delaware dragged their heels, which helps to account for the importance of the Thirteenth Amendment in eradicating slavery across the board.  A good number of white southern Unionists correctly perceived that the Confederacy was established to protect slavery, and they opposed secession and war because they felt such acts would endanger slavery, as they did.  Other white southern Unionists were far less supportive of slavery, not because of a belief in black equality, but for reasons of class and region.  One need only look at the struggles in Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina, to name but three Confederate states, to see that white southerners were divided over the best way to protect slavery or the degree to which they wanted to protect an institution which empowered some whites while harming other whites who had far less stake in the system or who saw its disadvantages.

And, of course, if the Confederacy was simply an exercise in freedom from government oppression and self-determination — both notions belied by the defense of slavery — then we might look at how the Confederates treated white southern Unionists.  Did the Confederacy accept what is often styled the secession of West Virginia?  Did they embrace dissent within the Confederacy?  Did they honor the demands of East Tennesseans for self-determination?  Not quite.

In short, one could use the easily documented presence of white southern Unionists to tell us much about the South, slavery, secession, the Confederacy, and the Civil War.  People like Robert Moore have been doing that for some time on the internet, because they don’t want that history to be forgotten.  Historians such as William Freehling have reminded us that the Civil War South was a divided South.  The understanding of southern history that emerges from that inquiry suggests that the Confederate flag is a symbol of oppression to southern whites as well as to others, because of what white southern Unionists had to endure.  You can’t understand the story of the South unless you understand the story of white southern Unionists; or, to employ a certain turn of phrase. when you eliminate the white southern Unionist, you’ve eliminated the history of the South.


9 thoughts on “Black Confederates and White Southern Unionists

  1. Marc Ferguson November 16, 2011 / 12:12 pm

    This important point, that you make here, that there is a distinction between Southern heritage and Confederate heritage, that they are not the same thing, is consistently made by Kevin Levin, Andy Hall, Robert Moore, Vikki Bynum, and many others, including myself. I think that many Confederate Romantics (see, for example the good folks at cwh2 ,) don’t actually understand the distinction that is being made when saying that the South is not equivalent to the Confederacy. They are not equivalent chronologically, demographically, or geographically.

  2. Bates Clark November 16, 2011 / 1:05 pm

    I have a somewhat related question on the role of slavery in the war.

    How do you interpret Jefferson Davis’ widely published interview with Col. Jaquess in 1864, where he indicated a strangely ambivalent view of the Emancipation Proclamation and stated “We are not fighting for slavery. We are fighting for independence, and that or extermination we will have.”

    We often talk about how Lincoln & the Union’s cause evolved from unionism to emancipation over the course of the war. So my question – Do you think this represents a parallel evolution in Davis’ thought? Did it signify the Confederate cause had undergone a change between 1861 and 1864?

    • Brooks D. Simpson November 16, 2011 / 1:22 pm

      I think that Davis came to see Confederate independence as an end in itself, but I don’t think most Confederates followed him there. Then again, I think Lincoln’s thinking did not so much evolve from preserving the Union to freeing the slaves, but on whether preserving the Union meant destroying slavery.

        • Kate November 16, 2011 / 9:08 pm

          Oh, there are so many stories of the ills – murder and torture – perpetrated against Southern Unionists and their families, especially in the mountains. Most of my ancestors who fought in the CW were on the Union side, from Kentucky and Tennessee. Some were even slave owners who remained loyal to the Union. I spend a good deal of time defending my real Southern heritage from the purveyors of Southern Heritage (TM).

          The South is not The Confederacy – it never was, and it never will be.

  3. Marilyn Fitzgerald Marme November 17, 2011 / 1:51 pm

    Exactly right. My ggg grandfather was imprisoned by the Confederacy for his Southern Unionist views in the castle Thunder prison, and wrote this letter to Lincoln, which gives good insight into this:
    From William Fitzgerald to Abraham Lincoln, July 4, 1863

    Castle Thunder

    Richmond July 4 1863

    As a Citizen of the United States I take the liberty of addressing you a short letter.

    I am now, and for a considerable time have been incarcerated by the Enemies of our Country, in Castle Thunder, Richmond– Here I shall soon die; but before being consigned to my obscure grave, I desire as a Southern man to applaud and commend your efforts in the holy cause in-which you are engaged; not only of restoring the Union, but in rending the shackles of Slavery from millions of our fellow beings– Let me assure you that the prayers of thousands in the South ascend to heaven daily for your ultimate success, in the great work–

    The heads of the wicked rebellion, and the public journals of the Country, would have the people of the North and of Europe believe, that the Southern people are unanimously in favor of a new goverment; but, Sir, a pretension more false was never promulgated– If the sense and will of the people, including the rank and file of the army, could be taken to-day, they would, by an overwhelming majority, declare in favor of the Union– Of the white population of the South more than two thirds of the adult males are non-slaveholders or poor– It is impossible for them to fraternize with such men as Jeff Davis, Yancey,1 Benjamin,2 and their coadjutors– It would be unnatural for them to symathise with this fratacidal rebellion, or revere an oligarchy founded on slavory, which the rebels leaders are seeking to establish– Slavery has been a curse of the poor white man of the south an and he would be mad indeed to desire to perpetuate it– The wealthy planter has ever been the poor mans enemy and oppressor, and the latter would be too generous by half if he disired to increase his foes power over him– You may depend upon it that in general the rich of the South dispise the poor, and the poor in return hate the rich–

    True it is that the army of the Confederacy is composed principally of men non-Slaveholders but they are not in arms by their own volition

    True it is that at the beginning of the war war many volunteers from this class were raised; but they did not realize the fact that they were to fight against the United States, against the Union– We are a sensation people; and they were carried away by the excitement of the moment– The leaders induced them to believe they were merely going to repel another John-Brown raid– The deception then successfully practiced by the heartless traitors, enabled them afterwards to enforce the conscription, and now the people are powerless– But let the for war for the Union be prosecuted, let your armies advance, and wherever they can promis security to the people you will find the masses loyal–

    In conclusion I will venture a single suggestion on another point– It would be arogance arrogance and folly in an humble individual like myself to presume to council the chief Magistrate of a great nation but having closely watched the progress of this wor, and the policy of your administration, I may be pardoned for expressing the result of my observations, and a single suggestion–

    Your Emancipation proclimation opened the grandest issue involved in this sanguenary struggle, and may prove prove the heaviest blow dealt the rebellion– But as I understand it, and as it is unwisely interpreted in the South, it frees all the Slaves within the territory to which applies without offering any idemnity to loyal citizens– In this respect it is wanting– There are many loyal slaveholders in the South, and your proclimation has driven some, and will drive others over to the rebels– I know within my circle of acquaintances several with whome it has had this effect– In my own town two gentlemen, who before the proclimation were regarded as union men, and furnished substitutes to the rebels with great reluctance, immediately after the promulgation of the document, entered the Confederate service, one as a Colonel, and another as captain– Not only were these two men added to the rebel army, but the influence of there example was by no means insignificant–

    Since then you can not desire the innocent to suffer for the misdeeds of the guilty, that the loyal should recieve — the wages of treason, let another proclimation be isued, promising loyal citizans of the South reasonable compensation for the slaves liberated, out of the confiscated property of the disloyal, and the two proclimations to together will quickly prove, with assistance of the army now in the field, the heaviest blows, and the death blows of the rebellion–

    Such is the belief of your dying, and,

    • SF Walker November 20, 2014 / 3:01 pm

      Wow. Thank you so much for sharing this letter, Marilyn! What an eloquently-worded insight into the feelings of the poorer white Southerners during the War. I think his suggestion of compensating loyal Southerners with the property of the traitors may have been a good move in conjunction with the Emancipation Proclamation, if it could have proven to be uniformly enforceable. After all, this was actually done after the American Revolution. Your great-grandfather was an insightful and intelligent man. Did Mr. Fitzgerald survive Castle Thunder?

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